Dupin, Julia , Matzke, Nicholas J , Särkinen, Tiina , Knapp, Sandra , Olmstead, Richard G , Bohs, Lynn , Smith, Stacey D. .
Bayesian estimation of the global biogeographic history of the Solanaceae.
Aim. The tomato family Solanaceae is distributed on all major continents except Antarctica and has its center of diversity in South America. Its worldwide distribution suggests multiple long distance dispersals within and between the New and Old Worlds. Here we apply maximum likelihood (ML) methods and newly developed biogeographic stochastic mapping (BSM) to infer the ancestral range of the family and to estimate the frequency of dispersal and vicariance events resulting in its present-day distribution.
Methods. Building on a recently inferred megaphylogeny of Solanaceae, we conducted ML model-fitting of a range of biogeographic models with the program BioGeoBEARS. We used the parameters from the best fitting model to estimate ancestral range probabilities and conduct stochastic mapping, from which we estimated the number and type of biogeographic events.
Results. Our best model supported South America as the ancestral area for the Solanaceae and its major clades. The BSM analyses showed that dispersal events, particularly range expansions, are the principal mode by which members of the family have spread beyond South America.
Conclusions. For Solanaceae, South America is not only the family’s current center of diversity but also its ancestral range, and dispersal was the principal driver of range evolution. The most common dispersal patterns involved range expansions from South America into North and Central America, while dispersal in the reverse direction was less common. This directionality may be due to the early build-up of species richness in South America, resulting in large pool of potential migrants. These results demonstrate the utility of BSM not only for estimating ancestral ranges but also in inferring the frequency, direction, and timing of biogeographic events in a statistically rigorous framework.
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1 - University of Colorado Boulder, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, 1800 Colorado Ave, Ramaley, Boulder, CO, 80309, USQ
2 - The Australian National University, Division of Ecology, Evolution, and Genetics, Research School of Biology, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia
3 - Royal Botanic Garden, 20A Inverleith Row, Edinburgh, EH3 5LR, UK
4 - Natural History Museum, Department of Life Sciences, Cromwell Road, London, SW7 5BD, UK
5 - University of Washington, Department of Biology and Burke Museum, Box 355325, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
6 - University Of Utah, Department Of Biology, 257 SOUTH 1400 EAST, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112-0840, USA
7 - University Of Colorado-Boulder, School Of Biological Sciences, Campus Box 334, Boulder, CO, 80309-0334, USA
Biogeographic Stochastic Mapping (BSM)
Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Session: 30, Biogeography I
Location: 203/Savannah International Trade and Convention Center
Date: Tuesday, August 2nd, 2016
Time: 1:30 PM
Candidate for Awards:None