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Martin, Michael D. [1], Wales, Nathan [2], Madrigal, Jazmí­n R. [2], Hansen, Anders J. [2], Mundy, John [3], Petersen, Gitte [4], Seberg, Ole [4], Gilbert, M. Thomas P. [2].

Phylogenomics and transcriptomics of Galápagos daisy trees (Scalesia).

The Galápagos archipelago is home to the endemic plant genus Scalesia (Asteraceae, the daisy/sunflower family). All are descendants of a daisy-like ancestor from the westestern coast of South America that arrived to the newly forming volcanic islands potentially within the last 4 million years. Then occurred a rapid radiation into at least 15 species with an astounding diversity in leaf morphology and habitat, ranging from woody rainforest canopy species to small shrubs that grow directly from bare lava rock. Known as the botanical equivalent of Darwin’s finches, the plants are important members of the islands’ endemic vegetation, famously specialized even amongst the organic riches of the Galápagos. But as rapid radiation left Scalesia species highly invariant at nuclear genetic markers, phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships within the genus are largely unknown.
We exploit a unique collection of both living and herbarium specimens to investigate the phylogeny biogeography of these astonishing group of plants during millions of years of adaptive radiation and dispersal amongst newly forming volcanic islands. We employed in vitro chromatin assembly-derived libraries, enabling extremely long-range de novo genome assembly and phasing. We present reference genome and transcriptome assemblies for four species, which along with genus-wide shotgun sequencing, fully resolves the phylogeny of the genus in a first step towards understanding its biogeography. With this dataset we provide an initial look at the pace and architecture of plant genome evolution, the gene families that make this genus unique, and the evolutionary genomic processes that so rapidly generated Scalesia’s morphological diversity.

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1 - University Museum, Department of Natural History, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway
2 - University of Copenhagen, Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Øster Voldgade 5-7, Copenhagen, Denmark
3 - University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, Ole Maalížes Vej 5, Copenhagen, Denmark
4 - University of Copenhagen, Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Sížlvgade 83, Copenhagen, Denmark

comparative genomics.

Presentation Type: Oral Paper
Session: 1, Phylogenomics I
Location: 101/Savannah International Trade and Convention Center
Date: Monday, August 1st, 2016
Time: 11:30 AM
Number: 1014
Abstract ID:455
Candidate for Awards:None

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